Weissmair, W. & N. Pühringer
(* = Kurzbeitrag)
Eulen und Spechte im Vogelschutzgebiet Dachstein (Österreich), mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Arten des Anhang I der EU-Vogelschutzrichtlinie.
(von 1994 bis 2006 vergeben)
Naturschutzgebiet, Natura 2000 Gebiet, Bestandeserfassung, Bestandesdichte, Habitatwahl, Phänologie, Ökologie
Bubo bubo, Glaucidium passerinum, Strix aluco, Asio otus, Aegolius funereus, Picus canus, Picus viridis, Dryocopus martius, Dendrocopos major, Dendrocopos leucotos, Picoides tridactylus
Uhu, Sperlingskauz, Waldkauz, Waldohreule, Raufusskauz, Grauspecht, Grünspecht, Schwarzspecht, Buntspecht, Weissrückenspecht, Dreizehenspecht
Österreich, Oberösterreich, Nördliche Kalkalpen, Gmunden, Dachstein
Owls and woodpeckers at bird conservation area Dachstein (Austria), with special regards to the species of annex I EU Birddirective. The Dachstein bird protection area (Natura 2000 and the National Conservation Area) comprises a total area of 14630 ha and lies in the Northern Limestone Alps in the southern part of the Austrian Province of Upper Austria. Its vegetation ranges from small vestigial alluvial forest areas in the Koppenwinkel (600 m a.s.l.) to a variety of wooded slopes, and on to pure coniferous forest (spruce-larch). At the tree-line (1500–1700 m) the Swiss stone pine is dominant, in some areas there is also larch and spruce.
In 2006 and 2007 the number and distribution of breeding territories of owls and woodpeckers was established in five specially selected trial areas (120–400 ha each, altogether 1420 ha), which constitute about 45 % of the accessible wooded area of the bird protection area. The method chosen was rationalised territory mapping (3 to 4 survey runs per trial area between the end of March and the end of May). Surveys were made by day, at dawn and dusk as well as by night. Voice recordings of birds were also used. More than two thirds of the surveys were two- or three-day simultaneous counts with 2–4 people, who stayed overnight in the area. Apart from territorial density, information was also gained on choice of habitat, phenology and peculiarities specific to the areas in question.
8–10 territories for Tengmalm’s Owl were counted (0.56–0.7 territories/100 ha), peak numbers for Central Europe, and the overall number of territories in the conservation area was estimated to be between 10 and 25. For the Eurasian Pygmy Owl 7–9 territories were counted (0.4–0.53 territories/100 ha), this density is also very high for Central Europe. The overall number of territories was estimated to be between 12 and 22. No territories of the Eagle Owl were found in the conservation area, and for reason of the raw climatic conditions are thought to be unlikely. It is also obvious that the wooded areas in the conservation area offer little suitable habitat for the Tawny Owl or the Long-eared Owl. For each of these just one territory was found on the edge of the area studied.
The most common woodpecker was the Three-toed Woodpecker, with 16–22 territories (1.1–1.5 territories/100 ha). The overall number of territories was estimated to be between 30 and 40. Only 7–8 territories were found for the Grey-headed Woodpecker, which corresponds to a density of 0.5 territories/100 ha (overall number: 14–16 territories). Surprisingly, the White-backed Woodpecker, with 3–4 territories in the trial area, was more common than the Black Woodpecker with a total estimate of 7 to10 territories. However, its density of 0.2–0.3/100 ha was very low. The Great Spotted Woodpecker, with 15–19 territories (a density of 1.0–1,3 territories/100 ha) was the second most common woodpecker after the Three-toed Woodpecker, with an overall number of between 31 and 40 territories.
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